Imagine a vehicle cruising along the road at a steady speed. That’s pretty much just half of its potential. But when you do need to speed up, that crucial split-second where you hit the pedal, the vehicle makes use of its electronic and mechanical parts to really push the limits of its capacity. This is when it needs fuel and air the most to create the combustion it needs to accelerate at top speeds.
When turning at high speeds, fuel sloshes about in the fuel tank. High speed corners subject the vehicle to extreme lateral G forces and can cause component failure of a slowing down of the vehicle which can be potentially dangerous. So as the fuel in the tank is also subjected to the same force, it sloshes about and the lack of it entering certain parts when it needs to leads to fuel starvation.
In more casual driving, fuel starvation can manifest as a wheeze, choke or an engine sputter. However, for vehicles that have more power, higher tuned and more receptive to air-fuel ratios, this can cause the engine to break down.
So, to counter fuel starvation, a fuel surge tank is installed to, as the name implies, surge the fuel into the fuel system. The component is supposed to guarantee the steady and constant supply of fuel entering the fuel pump, fuel pressure regulator, fuel rails and finally, into the fuel injectors.
Inside the fuel pump, fuel is pressurized by low pressure. Fuel flows into the fuel surge tank where the latter pushes the fuel towards the fuel pressure regulator to accelerate it. This assures that the fuel system still gets enough fuel without too much pressure, while excess fuel is returned to the fuel tank.